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2018, Volume 14

Liye Zou 1 , Tao Huang 2 , Tracy Tsang 3 , Zhujun Pan 4 , Chaoyi Wang 5 , Yang Liu 6 , Li Sun 7 , Huiru Wang 2 1 Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China, Hong Kong 2 Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, Shanghai 3 Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia, Sydney 4 Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, United States, Starkville 5 Department of Physical Education, Jilin University, China, Changchun 6 Sensorimotor Neurophysiology Laboratory, Indiana University, United States, Bloomington 7 School of Humanities and Social Science, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China, Shenzhen Author for correspondence: Huiru Wang; Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China; email: wanghrsjtu[at]163.com

Background and Study Aim: Martial arts are offensive and defensive combat systems, characterised by coordinated and cognitively complex movements. Martial arts are typically classified into “hard” and “soft” styles. Hard styles focus on quick and forceful movements involving striking, kicking, blocking, grabbling, and takedown (e.g., karate, taekwondo, kung fu and judo). The aim of this review is in the existing scientific literature knowledge about pertaining to the effects of martial arts on cognitive function across the lifespan.

Background and Study Aim:

Material and Methods: Both electronic and manual searches of the English-language articles published were conducted without limiting year of publication. The rigorous critical appraisal was independently performed, resulting in the inclusion of 18 studies.

Material and Methods:

Results: Study results from the existing scientific literature indicate that martial arts (karate, taekwondo, kung fu, and judo) can improve some selected aspects of cognitive function and neurotrophic factors (serum BDNF and IGF-1) associated with brain health. Specifically, martial arts could be promising approaches to potentially stimulate the development of cognitive function in children and adolescent, and decelerate cognitive decline in middle-aged and older adults.

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English for All: Advice for Students and Teachers

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Content-Based Language Instruction is popular in university and college academic settings for English language instruction. Content-Based Language Teaching is also used in primary and secondary educational settings in a variety of EFL and ESL settings, including full immersion environments and as supplements to content or foreign language learning in a bilingual setting. This article defines content-based instruction implemented as the foundation of an intensive English language program and how such a framework possibly helps accelerate language learning.

Look at today’s ESL/EFL textbooks. Most present English learning within topics, or themes. We could argue that this is content-based instruction. Many academic ESL classes use these content-based texts for learning English. Topics range from basic every day situations such as going to the grocery store, to more academic content such as environmental issues or psychology. So what makes this content-based instruction? Is it enough just to present language in a topic area or theme?

Content-Based Instruction can be viewed along a continuum, from focusing on the language and language learning itself to a focus on using language to navigate and learn a content ( Content-Based Second Language Instruction, Brinton, Snow, and Wesche ). That continuum is often defined by the level of language skill of the students. What is important to note is that at each point on the continuum, it is essential to have support from an instructor with experience in language teaching and CBLI.

To illustrate the continuum of content-based instruction, let’s take a look at what typically happens in an academic university ESL program using content-based instruction from beginning level to advanced:

Beginning to intermediate levels – these courses are typically taught with themes as the content or context for learning English. In academic settings, these will include the use of textbook series which provide chapters around different themes. Some popular textbook series which are used in the United States include the following:

Beginning to intermediate levels

These types of textbooks provide relevant every day and academic content themes to promote development of English language skills and grammar through context. A class will consist of instruction around three to four different theme areas.

Advanced Courses – students who have a strong knowledge of the basics of English can benefit from courses designed as “shelter courses.” These are courses which focus on one content just as any university or academic course might. However, they are taught by experienced English teachers, who many times develop the content of the course themselves. They may use an unabridged college textbook as the core resource for the class. For example, in our program, Academic English Studies , instructors have designed a number of content-based courses for the intermediate to advanced levels. Instructors have developed content-based courses in sociology, technology and society, American culture through film, and leadership and organizations, just to name a few. These courses range from six to fifteen weeks in length. Students are able to test their English and critical thinking skills while developing language and knowledge of a subject area. Focus is on developing English skills within the academic content, integrating all aspects of language learning: reading, writing, speaking, listening, and grammar use. There is a heavy focus on developing English language to be able to express progressively more complex ideas and critical thinking. In sheltered courses there can be an emphasis on the content while also supporting development of language needed to be productive at an advanced level of English in the subject area.

Our mission is to create tactical, actionable articles that teach valuable skills. We want to highlight the amazing work that’s being done every day in our industry, but instead of conducting armchair interviews, we dive into the messy details and show you how it actually works.

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